Daily Archives: April 30, 2010

Time to Remind Teens About Sun Protection

With summer fast approaching, it’s time to remind your children and teens about the importance of sun protection. “Even one blistering sunburn can increase your risk of skin cancer. As few as five sunburns can double your risk of skin cancer,” Dr. Anjali Dahiya, a dermatologist at the Iris Cantor Women’s Health Center at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, said in a news release.

Teenage girls need to be especially vigilant about sun protection. The potentially fatal skin cancer melanoma is the most common cancer in young women aged 25 to 29.

Much of the sun-related skin damage in these young women occurred in their teens.

“Sun exposure plays a significant role in the development of melanoma. Although more adults are using sunscreens during outdoor activities, many are unaware of how important it is to make sure that their children are getting the necessary skin protection,” Dr. Desiree Ratner, director of dermatologic surgery at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, said in the news release.

The doctors offered the following skin protection tips for teens and “tweens”:

  • Apply sunscreen to the entire surface of your body about 30 minutes before going outside.
  • If you’re swimming, reapply sunscreen once you’re out of the water.
  • Use a sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher and be sure it has both UVA and UVB blocking ingredients.
  • Limit your sun exposure.
  • In addition to using sunscreen, use hats, sunglasses and umbrellas.
  • Never use tanning beds — try self-tanning creams for a safer summer glow.
  • Watch for freckles, which may be a sign of sustained sun damage.

Spanking your kid could hatch a bully? Don’t bet on it!

Well, here we go again. The news media and liberal pundits are lauding a new study that claims “… even minor forms of corporal punishment, such as spanking, increase risk for increased child aggressive behavior.” Could this be true?

As Time Magazine reports, “Disciplining young children is what parents are supposed to do — most moms and dads have no trouble agreeing with that. But should the punishment include spanking? As many parents can attest, few disciplinary measures stop a child from misbehaving as quickly as a swift smack or two on the bottom.”

But, most of the news media ran a different direction:

Disciplining young children is what parents are supposed to do — most moms and dads have no trouble agreeing with that. But should the punishment include spanking?
As many parents can attest, few disciplinary measures stop a child from misbehaving as quickly as a swift smack or two on the bottom.
Read more: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1983895,00.html#ixzz0mbrf7deB
  • Reuters reports, “punishing your toddler with a few swats on the rear may come back to bite you, a new report suggests.
  • The New York Times says, “hitting a child — whether in anger or as a proscribed punishment — does not permanently improve behavior and can cause long-term emotional harm.”
  • ABC News claims, “A new study links frequent spanking with aggression in young children.”

Theses news sources are basing their biased coverage on a biased study.

In this new study, researchers at Tulane University surveyed 2,500 mothers and found that when 3-year-old children are spanked often, they are 50 percent more likely to show aggressive behavior two years later. The study researchers say their study shows that even “light spanking” can increase the risk of aggression.

Since this “new” data goes against my experience and my understanding of the research literature on the topic, I contacted the researcher and expert I most trust in reviewing the studies on spanking — Robert E. Larzelere, Ph.D., at Oklahoma State University.

After reviewing the study, Dr. Larzelere has submitted this comment to the journal that published the misleading study:

Dr. Taylor.s study is well-intentioned but biased. It does not distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate spanking nor does it identify what parents should use instead.

In a recent study published in BMC Pediatrics, we used the same methods used in the Taylor article and got the same results (3rd row of Table 5).

The only problem was that we got the same apparently harmful child outcomes for grounding, sending children to their room, and even for child psychotherapy.

This led us to conclude that something is wrong when the “strongest evidence yet against the use of spanking” is based on statistical analyses that would make psychotherapy for children look as harmful as spanking!

Our study shows that these results are biased because defiant children lead parents to use all disciplinary tactics more often as well as to seek psychotherapy for their child.

Further, like all anti-spanking studies, Taylor’s study does not distinguish appropriate from inappropriate spanking.

Our 2005 summary of all 26 studies investigating other disciplinary alternatives as well as spanking found that spanking resulted in less noncompliance or aggression than 10 of the 13 alternatives when it was used nonabusively to back-up milder disciplinary tactics in defiant 2-to-6-year-olds.

Spanking led to worse outcomes than alternative tactics only when it was used too severely or as the primary disciplinary method.

The best parenting combines love and limits, using the mildest disciplinary tactic that fits the occasion, but spanking has been shown to be an effective option when young children respond defiantly to milder tactics, such as time out.

Then they will learn to cooperate with time out, so that loving parents can phase out spanking as soon as possible.

You can read more about spanking myths (and find out the facts about appropriate spanking) in several previous blogs I’ve written on appropriate spanking:

  • Introduction
  • Argument #1: Many psychological studies show that spanking is an improper form of discipline.
  • Argument #2: Physical punishment establishes the moral righteousness of hitting other persons who do something which is regarded as wrong.
  • Argument #3: Since parents often refrain from hitting until the anger or frustration reaches a certain point, the child learns that anger and frustration justify the use of physical force.
  • Argument #4: Physical punishment is harmful to a child.
  • Argument #5: Physical punishment makes the child angry at the parent.
  • Argument #6: Spanking teaches a child that “might makes right,” that power and strength are most important and that the biggest can force their will upon the smallest.
  • Argument #7: Spanking is violence.
  • Argument #8: Spanking is an ineffective solution to misbehavior.
  • Argument #9: Adults who were spanked as children are at risk for using violence as a means of resolving conflicts as adults.
  • Argument #10: Spanking leads a parent to use harmful forms of corporal punishment which lead to physical child abuse.
  • Argument #11: Spanking is never necessary.